Introduction to Resin Bound Surfacing
Resin based surfacing systems are another relatively new introduction to the British and Irish paving markets. Their advancement has been made possible by substantial advances made in polymer and epoxy resins over the previous 25 years. The standard facility is that an ornamental or coloured gravel is “glued” to an existing solid surface area by means of a transparent or coloured resin.
The result is an incredibly hard-wearing surface area, ideal for indoor along with external use, that is relatively resistant to weeds and fairly low-maintenance.
The better systems are completely resistant to oil or petrol spillage, do not fade in UV sunlight, can tolerating a vast array of temperature levels and can be laid in an enormous range of patterns and colours, and all this is based on simply two base components: the aggregates and the resin itself.
Applications and Utilities
One excellent advantage of the resin-base systems is their adaptability. They can be utilized on more or less any task, or any scale, to suit any budget plan. Possible usages consist of internal flooring, paths, driveways and patio areas
, footways, cycleways, bus lanes and road junctions, commercial properties, parking area … the list truly is endless!
bus lane Red resin and aggregate utilized to mark a bus lane on a hectic town centre roadway
cycleway Green resin and aggregate laid to demarcate a cycleway within an existing footpath
parking area Brown Bauxite utilized to surface an upmarket cars and truck sales forecourt area
Concepts, logo designs, home numbers or almost anything else you can possibly imagine can be inlaid into the resin emerging by utilizing a contrasting gravel.
Some providers declare to be able to provide almost 700 various colours using imported aggregates or specifically coloured gravels, and by ‘mixing’ gravels from various sources to create special palette.
So, if it’s so terrific, why isn’t it viewed as often as, say, block paving?
Well, cost was once a major issue however this has actually been less of an issue over the last 3 or 4 years as more business have actually entered the market to introduce more competitors, and the marketplace itself has actually developed, gaining from sophisticated innovations and economies of scale.
The significant barrier to broader usage is easy consumer awareness. Resin-based emerging is not an option familiar to many architects, specifiers, designers and professionals in the building trade, and in the essential property market (driveways, outdoor patios and so on) client awareness barely signs up a flicker on the recognition meter. However, because being featured on this website, there does appear to be an elevated level of interest, enough to persuade 2 of the leading business to have their items and methods included on subsidiary pages of this area.
Construction of Resin Bound Surfaces
There are two fundamental methods of using a resin-based surface: In the trade, they are referred to as Resin Bound and Resin Bonded, but I feel this is totally confusing for the clients, both those in the trade itself and those from the domestic market. I’ve discussed it with leading producers, but they appear to want to stay strongly bonded (or bound) to the existing terms.
So, while I need to accept their supposedly detailed terms, I prefer to use the much more easily understood terms, ‘Scatter Finish’ and ‘Hand Shoveling’. Scattercoat refers to the resin BONDED systems, while Trowelled are the resin BOUND systems. Confused? Then read on and ideally, all will be made clear.
Resin Bound Product Study
The rest of this page gives elementary protection of the concepts behind both techniques, but there are thorough descriptions of the Scatter Coat approach, and the Trowelled technique, utilizing the SureSet product, offered on subsequent pages.
There is likewise a page taking a look at permeable/porous resin bound aggregate for tree pit surrounds
and so forth.
Both systems need there to be an existing base to which the resin system can be applied as an overlay. This base, or substrate as it is often understood, can be an existing pavement of tarmac, asphalt, concrete or other monolithic product that has actually been cleaned up and prepared, or it can be a recently laid base.
The preferred bases differ from product to item, but, in general either bitmac or concrete are chosen since they are “Monolithic”, that is, they are entire, single ‘pieces’ of pavement, with few, if any joints. Appropriately, “essential” pavings, that is those made from discrete units with joints in between each unit, such as block pavers, setts, flags etc., are NOT suitable for use as the base for a resin-based system.
The factor for this is that Reflective Cracking is most likely to occur with essential pavements, and this would ruin the look, and the efficiency, of any resin-based system. Although very difficult, the resin would be responsible to crack when filled unless it is laid over an appropriate base.
Reflective Cracking. Flags and block paving will move a little under much heavier loads such as cars and trucks and other cars, which can result in the previously mentioned issue of ‘reflective breaking’ – this is the phenomenon where a joint between 2 separate paving systems is sent through the covering product, developing fractures and cracks in the surface area.
It is seriously essential that an existing base remains in good condition, with no significant fractures, potholes, weeds, contamination and so forth. Bitmac, concrete or asphalt in great condition are normally adequate, but in all cases, the producer’s advice and recommendations must be followed concerning preparation, pre-cleaning, etching or whatever is needed.
These are best constructed from mass or reinforced concrete, or from bitmac, asphalt etc, as matches the scheduled end usage and regional conditions.
See concrete hardstandings and/or tarmacadam page for fuller information of constructing these types of bases.
Some producers declare a base of wood, flags/slabs or obstruct paving appropriate bases for resin bonded emerging, however we would never consider any of these surfaces as adequate other than in the most exceptional of scenarios. A basic wooden base might be acceptable on indoor applications, but would swell, rot and/or carry on outside tasks, therefore, if a wooden base is to be used, only a correct outside grade wood deck surface area need to ever be considered.
Except for particular applications such as tree-pits, resin-based surfacing can not usually be laid on a granular sub-base, such as a layer of DTp Type 1, gravel or sand, no matter how well compacted.
Surfacing Preparation For Your Resin Bound Construction
The base is cleaned to eliminate all organic and/or loose material, dust and detritus. Edging strips, generally aluminium, may be repaired to complimentary edges to contain the surface area layer and prevent edge crumbling. With specific products, a polymer primer is then used over the base and the surface layer applied.Typical Gravels
Simply a few of the many coloured gravels readily available
As mentioned above, here are two methods of using the surface layer, ‘Scatter Finishing’ and ‘Hand Shoveling’.
As the name recommends, this approach includes applying the resin over an ideal base, and after that ‘scattering’ the selected gravel or aggregate over the tacky resin before it sets. Some systems use pre-coated aggregates, while others depend on applying a resin over the spread stone.
Item Research study
Click to accessClick here to access an in-depth ‘Product Study’ of the Scatter Coat method.
This technique counts on the aggregate and the resin being upset together in mixer, and then spread over the ready base with hand drifts, screeding trowels and bars. This kind of work normally makes sure a sufficient density is used to the whole location and is a fairly common approach of application.
Click to accessClick here to access an in-depth ‘Item Study’ of the Hand Trowelled approach, utilizing SureSet resin.
A few of the trowelled (Resin Bound) systems have actually been fine-tuned to render them incredibly permeable yet ideal for direct application over an unbound sub-base, which makes them perfect products for use in emerging the numerous tree pits that now adorn the centres of our towns and cities.
Whichever technique of application is used, the resin sets fairly rapidly – typically within 1 hour, therefore needs to be worked effectively to ensure the resin and the aggregates are spread, levelled and smoothed before it ends up being too stiff. For this factor, this kind of emerging is finest laid by knowledgeable, specialist contractors, although, for smaller locations, such as garden paths, patios and small driveways, it can be done by qualified DIY’ers.
A solvent is utilized to clean the tools and the mixer when work is finished. Protective clothing and a suitable mask/respirator must be used when dealing with epoxy resins and the cleansing solvents.
Pros, rates and cons
Resin based emerging is an excellent paving system when properly laid over a sound base. There are no loose stones, no weeds to clear out or to take in ‘PathClear’. The colours are light-fast, oil and gas have no effect on the resin as soon as set and can be merely wiped off. It offers excellent slip-resistance. It can be utilized to continue a paving scheme throughout a corporate site, so the that external sidewalks and internal atriums, passages and foyers are all the same. There is an almost unlimited choice of colours and multi-colour ‘blends’. Panels of contrasting colours can be laid, as can all sorts of logos and motifs.close up
York mix (a browny-buff mix) The 10p coin (25mm size) gives a sign of scale.
While resin based surfacing may seem a remedy, it does have periodic problems, and most of these are attributable to one common element – cowboy specialists. There are recorded instances of the resin being ‘thinned’ with the cleansing solvent, of the base not being correctly prepared or primed, of the resin/stone mix being laid over bare earth and on top of existing outdoor patios. The value of finding a credible, skilled contractor can not be overemphasized, and the majority of the trusted manufacturers, including those with items included on this website, either provide their own, internal laying gangs, or provide lists of specialists that have been effectively trained and accredited as skilled in the laying of these products.
The major structural failure of resin based surfacing comes when the resin or the primer itself ‘lifts’ from the underlying base. This is most often since of frost heave or base motion, however there are other reasons, most of which are straight related to the standard of craftsmanship. Frost heave or base motion often leaves a space below the appearing layer which then ‘collapses’ into deep space when subjected to a heavy load.
Just like other monolithic surfacings, such as tarmac or PHOTO, undetectable repair works are impossible. The only way to remedy a defect is to cut out the affected area and re-surface, with the most likely repercussion of the repair work being significantly unique from the rest of the paving.
In some scattercoat applications, the specialists cannot eliminate the excess aggregate and the result is that the aggregate ‘migrates’ to other areas, which not only looks messy but is possibly dangerous.bald spots
On other projects, unethical specialists utilize a resin of inferior quality, ‘thin’ the resin to cut the expenses, or cannot use enough aggregate, leading to bald spots, such as those revealed here.
Prices are highly variable. Numerous professionals have a minimum job charge of ₤ 2,000 or more. The resin based surfacing itself costs, typically, in between ₤ 20 and ₤ 80 per square metre, depending on the thickness of application, the size of the location to be covered and the kind of aggregate selected. Construction of a suitable base is not included, nor is preparation of an existing base. If you are acquiring a price for this type of emerging, ensure the specialist states what is and what isn’t included in the cost.